An abbreviated version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) was used. This scale was developed by Lovibond and Lovibond [ 34 ]. The three-dimensional self-reporting scales assess the presence and intensity of affective states of depression, anxiety, and stress.
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21: Development and Validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-Item in Psychiatric Patients and the General Public for Easier Mental Health Measurement in a Post COVID-19 World
The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 Items (DASS-21) is a set of three self-report scales designed to measure the emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. Each of the three DASS-21 scales contains 7 items, divided into subscales with similar content. The depression scale assesses dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of life.
The depression scale measures general dissatisfaction, hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-criticism, lack of interest, inability to feel pleasure, and emotional states resistant to change (items 3, 5, 10, 13, 16, 17, and 21). 3. The anxiety scale measures autonomic arousal, muscle effects, situational anxiety, and subjective beliefs.
The DASS assesses negative emotional symptoms by using a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 to 3. It has 3 subscales (depression, anxiety, and stress) with 14 items in each subscale for the DASS 42. These subscales are scored by the addition of the total item scores, which can range from 0 to 42. The DASS-21 is a simplified version of the.
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